DIABETES- WHAT IS DIABETES (TYPE 1, TYPE 2, SYMPTOMS, CAUSES AND TREATMENT
Diabetes also referred as diabetes mellitus by doctors is a disease seen commonly among aged persons. It is a group of metabolic diseases which arise due to the hike in blood sugar level. The increase in glucose level may be due to inadequate insulin production or showing no response to insulin or both. Those people may experience polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increasingly thirsty) and polyphagia (increasingly hungry).
It was estimated that in 2013, around 382 million people had diabetes in this world. Diabetes is of three types; Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is also referred as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. In this condition, the body lacks the production of insulin. The type 1 patients are usually of the age before their 40’s, on their early adulthood. Nowadays 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Type 1 patients should intake insulin injection on a regular basis. Regular blood test and a balanced diet are required for ensuring proper blood glucose level.
Approximately 90% of all the cases reported worldwide are diabetes type 2. In this case, also the body lacks the production of insulin, it may be because of the reduced production of glucose or the cells may lack the production of insulin. Type 2 diabetes could be controlled by reducing the weight, maintaining a healthy diet, doing regular exercises and monitoring the body blood glucose levels. If the type 2 diabetes gets worse, the patient will end up taking insulin in tablet form.
Usually, those people having obesity and overweight have more chance of getting type 2 diabetes than people having a healthy body. Risk of getting a disease is more for those people having a lot of visceral fat, known as central obesity, belly fat or abdominal obesity. The body of people with overweight and obesity release certain chemicals that can destabilize cardiovascular and metabolic systems.
Overweight, physically inactive and eating wrong food increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. By the researchers from Imperial College, London reported in the journal ‘Diabetologia’ that drinking one can of non-diet soda per day increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by 22%. From studies, it is said that consuming more sugary soft drinks could increase the risk of diabetes on the body.
Risk of getting type 2 diabetes is more for aged people. The reason is that aged people gain more weight and body becomes physically inactive. People with close relatives having type 2 diabetes, people from Middle Eastern, African or South Asian descent have more risk of type 2 diabetes. Men with low testosterone levels are having a high risk of type 2 diabetes. University of Edinburgh, Scotland scientists have found that the testosterone levels affect the insulin resistance.
Polydipsia, polyphagia, lethargy and stupor are those symptoms affecting the central system. Lethargy and stupor are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Weight loss is a systemic symptom of type 1 diabetes. Kussmaul breathing (hyperventilation) is another symptom seen in the respiratory system. Blurred vision for eyes. The smell of acetone in breathing system. Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain are the symptoms seen in the gastric system. Polyuria, glycosuria are those urinary symptoms.
Frequent urination, disproportionate thirst, intense hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, increased fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, cuts and bruises may not heal quickly, more skin infections, itchy skin, gums may be swollen or red or even the teeth may get pulled away, frequent gum infection or diseases and sexual dysfunction among men are those common symptoms of diabetes.
TREATMENT OF DIABETES:
Whether it is type 1 or type 2, all types of diabetes could be treated well. Type 1 diabetes lasts a lifetime, as it has no known cure. Type 2 diabetes also lasts a lifetime, but it could be cured without the help of medication but by following a certain balanced diet, exercise and weight control. From the studies done by researchers from Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottsdale, it is said that gastric bypass surgery could reverse type 2 diabetes. They also found out that the disease will recur within three to five years in approximately 21% of the patients. The MD., Yessica Ramos, said that ”The recurrence rate was mainly influenced by a longstanding history of Type 2 diabetes before the surgery. This suggests that early surgical intervention in the obese, diabetic population will improve the durability of remission of Type 2 diabetes.”
Type 1 diabetic patients could be treated by taking insulin injections, following diet and exercises.
Type 2 diabetic patients could be treated by regularly taking tablets, following a diet and exercises, also sometimes they may require insulin injections.