Cerebral Stroke-Causes & Symptoms!!!
Stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are mainly two types of stroke. Ischemic due to lack of blood flow hemorrhagic due to bleeding. The Hemorrhagic Stroke of the brain does not function properly. In an ischemic stroke, blood supply to the part of the brain is decreased, leading to the dysfunction of the brain tissue in that area. There are 4 reasons why this happens:
- Systematic hypoperfusion
- Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
Haemorrhage includes two types. Cerebral haemorrhage which is basically bleeding within the brain itself, due to either intraparenchymal haemorrhage or intraventricular haemorrhage.
CAUSES OF ISCHEMIC STROKE
- Caused by blockage or narrowing of the arteries that provide blood to the brain, resulting in ischemia severely reduced blood flow that damages the brain.
- Caused by blood clots which can form either in the arteries within the brain or into other blood vessels in the body before being swept through the bloodstream and into narrower arteries within the brain.
- Fatty deposits within the arteries called plaque can cause clots that result in ischemia.
- Other causes include; sudden variation in blood pressure, brain tumour, blood clot, blood coagulation disorder, aneurysm blood vessel abnormality such as weakning of the blood vessel, hormonal imbalance, acute exhausting illness.
CAUSES OF HEMORRHAGIC STROKE
Caused by arteries in the brain either leaking blood or bursting open. The leaked blood pulse pressure on brain cells and damage them. It also reduces the blood supply reaching the brain tissue after haemorrhage point. Blood vessels can burst and spill blood within the brain or the next surface of the brain, sending blood into the space between the brain and skull. The rupture can be caused by conditions such as hypertension, trauma, blood thinning medications and aneurysms. It occurs when brain tissue is flooded with blood after an artery in the brain bursts.
Stroke symptoms typically start suddenly over seconds to minutes and in most cases do not progress further. The symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. The more extensively the area of the brain affected, the more likely to lose the function. Some forms of stroke can show additional symptoms.
During a stroke the brain does not recieve enough oxygen or nutrients, causing brain cells to die. Ischemic strokes are caused by narrowing or blocking the arteries of the brain. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible to minimize brain damage. Treatment depends on the type of stroke. The most effective way to prevent stroke is to maintain the healthy lifestyle and treating underlying conditions that are a risk factor.
SYMPTOMS OF STROKE
- Confusion- including trouble with speaking and understanding
- Headache-possibly with altered consciousness or vomiting.
- Numbness or inability to move parts of thr face, arms or leg particularly on one side of the body.
- Trouble in seeing, in one or both eyes.
- Trouble in walking, including dizziness and lack of coordination.
- Bladder or bowel control problems
- Pain in the hands and feet that gets worse with movement andtemperature changes.
- Paralysis or weakness on one or both side of the body.
- Trouble in controlling or expressing emotions
- The acronym F.A.S.T is the easiest way to remember the signs of stroke.
Face drooping- If the person tries to smile does one side of the face droops?
Arm weakness- If the person tries to drift their arm does one side of the arm drift downward?
Speech difficulty- If the person tries to repeat simple phrase does their speech slurred or strange?
Time to call 911- If any of these signs are observed, contact emergency services.
Other symptoms include difficulty in walking, dizziness, loss of balance and coordination, blurred or darkened vision.
RISK FACTORS OF CEREBRAL STROKE
People with increased age are more prone to apoplexy. People with family history of apoplexy are at increased risk. The risk of apoplexy among Africans is twice than Caucacians. Hypertension is another risk factor. Cigarette smoking plays an important role. The nicotine and Carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen. People with coronary heart disease are at more risk than people with normal functioning heart. Diabates, high blood cholestrol, physical inactivity and obesity are among risk factors. Liver disease causes increased risk of bleeding.
A stroke occurs when part of the brain loses its blood supply and stops working. This causes the part of the body that the injured brain controls to stop working. From the onset of symptoms there is only there is only 3- 4.5 hours of window to use clot bursting drugs to restore the blood supply to the affected part of the bran. The medical care should be provided as soon as possible to the patient as immediate treatment saves him.