Symptoms Of Ovarian Cancer & its Treatment
If cancer begins in the ovary, then it is ovarian cancer. By studies, in the United States, ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths in women and the tenth most common cancer among women. This kind of cancer has the highest rate of deaths among gynecologic cancers. It is said that around 22,000 Americans undergo diagnosis of ovarian cancer yearly. Family history, older age, reproductive history and obesity could increase your risk of getting ovarian cancer. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy are the main treatment options. If one is diagnosed with ovarian cancer earlier then there would be 94 percent chance of surviving five more years.
Epithelium or the outer wall of the ovary is the main region where ovarian cancer develops at the initial stages. There may be few or no symptoms in the initial stages. Premenstrual syndrome(PMS), irritable bowel syndrome(IBS), or even a temporal bladder problem could have the same symptoms of that of ovarian cancer at the initial stages. Ovarian cancer and other possible diseases have the main difference being that in ovarian cancer the symptoms become persistent and worsened.
Pain in the pelvis, lower abdomen or in the lower part of the body is one of the early symptoms of ovarian cancer. Back pain, indigestion or heartburn are some of the early symptoms. When eating one may feel full, this is an early symptom. More frequent and urgent urination also occurs. Pain during sexual intercourse occurs. Constipation occurs which is a change in the bowel habits. When cancer progresses nausea, weight loss, breathlessness, tiredness and loss of appetite occurs.
Like all other cancers, ovarian cancer also happens due to the unregulated division and multiplication of cells. Family history, age, reproductive history, birth control, infertility or fertility treatment, breast cancer, hormone therapy, obesity and overweight, gynecologic surgery, endometriosis are some of the causes. Compared with other women, women with close relatives who had breast cancer or ovarian cancer increases the chance. Ovarian cancer occurs in women aged especially 63 or after menopause. The more the pregnancies lower is the risk of getting ovarian cancer. Breastfeeding decreases the risk. Using contraceptive pills for at least 3 to 6 months could reduce the risk. Usage of an injectable contraceptive hormone, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA or Depo- Provera CI) for 3 or more years could reduce the risk.
Fertility drugs could increase the risk of getting ovarian cancer. In women who use such drugs without becoming pregnant for more than a year, the chance is more. Infertile women have a higher risk. Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have a higher risk. Women undergoing hormone therapy has a slightly higher risk. Women who are having a body mass index of 30 or above has a higher risk of getting ovarian cancer. Undergoing surgery on reproductive organs such as tubal ligation, hysterectomy could lower the risk. Women who develop endometriosis have a higher risk of around 30 percent.
Various treatment methods of ovarian cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or targeted therapy. Usually, more than one treatment method is involved.
Depending on the stage of cancer, the surgery is done. Usually, this treatment method has opted initially. Salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy, lymph- node dissection and cytoreductive or debulking surgery are the main surgical treatment methods. Chemotherapy uses certain medications to destroy the cancerous cells. Cytotoxic medication delivers poisonous drugs to cells. Thus cancerous cells cease division and growth. In targeted chemotherapy, the method could target specific pathways and functions of cancer cells. These medications mainly include bevacizumab (Avastin) and olaparib (Lynparza). To prevent the reaching of oestrogen to cancerous cells, hormone therapy is also included. Radiation therapy is done by passing radiations to the traces of cancer in the ovary, thus could eliminate the symptoms of advanced ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer which occurs only in women mainly affects the ovary as the name suggests. There are symptoms and signs of getting ovarian cancer. If diagnosed earlier then cancer could be destroyed. There are certain causes which bring out ovarian cancer. So get rid of such causes if get noticed. Various treatment methods are now available for treating ovarian cancer.